Как создавалась письменность
для бесписьменных культур
(обзор научных исследований)


Ситникова Александра Александровна
Сибирский федеральный университет


Аннотация
В статье рассмотрены зарубежные научные практики по созданию орфографий для бесписьменных
языков с целью поиска качественного и эффективного алгоритма для утверждения и развития энецкой
письменности. В обзоре современных зарубежных исследований доминирует анализ научных публикаций,
выпущенных учеными SIL international – наиболее опытной и авторитетной организации в этой области.
В первой части статьи представлено описание признанного наиболее перспективным в начале XXI века
алгоритма по созданию письменностей для языков коренных народов – выделены этапы, принципы и науч-
ные установки, перечислены лингвистические и нелингвистические вызовы, возникающие при разработке
письменности. Во второй части статьи рассмотрены конкретные случаи: а) успешного создания письмен-
ности учеными SIL для мексиканских языков, в частности, для микстекского языка; б) безуспешной на се-
годняшний день попытки создания письменности для народа дарма, проживающего на территории Непала
на границе с Индией. По итогам сделаны выводы о том, какие современные методики в области создания
орфографий, могут быть использованы для создания письменности энецкого языка.


Ключевые слова: орфография для бесписьменных языков, бесписьменные языки, кейс-стади создания письменности в XXI веке, энецкий/энский язык


https://doi.org/10.31804/2542-1816-2018-2-3-63-75


Исследование выполнено при финансовой поддержке Экспертного центра «Проектный офис разви-
тия Арктики» (ПОРА) грантового проекта «Создание энцкой (энецкой) письменности как способа сохране-
ния уникального культурного наследия коренных малочисленных народов Севера».

 

How Writing Systems for Cultures Having
No Written Language Were Invented
(a review of scientific researches)


Sitnikova Alexandra Alexandrovna
Siberian Federal University


Abstract


The article deals with foreign scientific practices on the creation of orthographies for oral languages in order to
find a qualitative and efficient algorithm for the approval and development of the Enets writing system. A review of
modern foreign researches shows that analysis of scientific publications issued by scientists from SIL International,
the most experienced and authoritative organization in this field, prevails. The first part of the article contains 

description of an algorithm for the creation of writing systems of indigenous languages recognized as the most
perspective one in the beginning of XXI century: stages, principles and scientific attitudes are distinguished, and
linguistic and nonlinguistic challenges emerging in the process of writing system development are listed. The
second part of the article deals with specific cases: a) of successful creation of a writing system by SIL scientists
for Mexican languages, namely, for the Miksteka language; b) of still unsuccessful attempt on the creation of
a writing system for the darma people living in the territory of Nepal on the border with India. Based on the results,
conclusions on modern methods in the field of orthography creation that can be used to create a writing language
for the Enets language were made.
Key words: orthography for oral languages, oral languages, case study on the creation of a writing system in
XXI century, the Enets/Ents language


The research is carried out with financial support from the Expert Center «Project Office for Arctic Development»
(PORA) of the grant project «Creation of the Ents (Enets) Writing System as a Means of Preservation of Unique
Cultural Heritage of Indigenous Minorities of the North».

References:
Ablazhey, A. M., Campbell, C. R. Identity, Community and Belonging (on the Example of Kezhemsky
& Evenkiysky Municipal Districts of Krasnoyarsk Krai) // Journal of Siberian Federal University. Humanities
& Social Sciences 4 (2018 11) 526-533.
Anderson, D., McGowan R., Whistler K. (2005) Recommendation for creating new orthographies,
In Unicode. – Available at: http://www.unicode.org/notes/tn19/
Benton, J. P. (1999) How the Summer Institute of Linguistics has developed orthographies for indigenous
languages in Mexico, In SIL international, – Available at: http://citeseerx.ist.psu.edu/viewdoc/
download?doi=10.1.1.628.4359&rep=rep1&type=pdf
Cahill, M., Karan, E. (2008) Factors in designing effective orthographies for unwritten languages,
In SIL Electronic working papers. – Available at: https://www.sil.org/system/files/reapdata/
71/22/66/71226648004357014393230040163130285698/silewp2008_001.pdf
Cahill, M., Rice K. (eds.) (2014) Developing Orthographies for Unwritten Languages, In SIL international,
265.
Carmen, J. (2010) Orthography design for Chuxnaban Mixe, In Language documentation conservation,
Vol.4, 231 – 253. – Available at: https://www.academia.edu/1562642/Orthography_design_
for_Chuxnab%C3%A1n_Mixe
Fishman, Joshua A. (1977) Advances in the Creation and Revision of Writing Systems, The Hague:
Mouton, 491 p.
Gudschinsky, S. C. (1973) A manual of literacy for preliterate peoples, In SIL international, 180.
Hyslop, G. (2014) Kurtöp Orthography Development in Bhutan. In SIL international publications in language
use and education 6, 2011 – 230.
Jones, M. C., Mooney, D. (2017) Creating orthographies for endangered languages. Cambridge university
press, 358 p.
Karan, E. (2006) Writing system development and reform: a process, In Grand Forks, North Dakota,
– Available at: http://emilkirkegaard.dk/lyddanskWP/wp-content/uploads/2014/11/Writing-system-
development-and-reform-A-process.pdf
Karan, E. (2014) The ABD of orthography testing: Practical guidelines, In SIL International Work Papers of
the Summer Institute of Linguistics, University of North Dakota Session, vol. 54. – Available at: https://
arts-sciences.und.edu/summer-institute-of-linguistics/work-papers/_files/docs/2014-karan.pdf
Kistova A. V., Pimenova N. N. Historiography of Ket Language // Journal of Siberian Federal University.
Humanities & Social Sciences 4 (2018 11) 534-545.
Kistova A. V., Pimenova N. N. History and Specificity of Literary Activity of Indigenous Peoples // Journal
of Siberian Federal University. Humanities & Social Sciences 9 (2016 9) 1932-1944.
Kistova A. V., Pimenova N. N. Current Condition of Decorative and Applied Art of the Indigenous Peoples
Resident in the Territory of the Evenki and Taymyr Municipal Districts (Economic and Sociocultural
Practices) // Journal of Siberian Federal University. Humanities & Social Sciences 10 (2017
10) 1485-1506.
Kistova A. V., Pimenova N. N. Ekspediciya v CHindatskij sel'skij sovet Tyuhtetskogo rajona Krasnoyarskogo
kraya [Expedition to the Chindath Village Council of the Tyukhtetsky District of the Kras

noyarsk Territory] // Severnye Arhivy i Ekspedicii [Northern Archives and Expeditions]. – 2018. –
T. 2. – № 2. – S. 30-45.
Kolesnik M. A. Decoration of Children’s Literature of the Indigenous Peoples of the North, Siberia and
the Far East // Journal of Siberian Federal University. Humanities & Social Sciences 9 (2016 9)
2044-2059.
Kolesnik M. A., Libakova N. M., Sertakova E. A. Enets Language in the Studies of Domestic and Foreign
Scientists // Journal of Siberian Federal University. Humanities & Social Sciences 4 (2018 11)
546-560.
Krivonogov V. P. People of the Deer Living near Lake Baikal: Dynamics of Ethno-Cultural Identity of
Modern Tofalars (Northern Asia, Eastern Siberia) // Journal of Siberian Federal University. Humanities
& Social Sciences 8 (2018 11) 1274-1300.
Kuznetsova E. M. Ethnocultural Portrait of Russia: The Yessey Yakuts. The Life by the Lake (History and
Culture of an Ethnic Group) // Journal of Siberian Federal University. Humanities & Social Sciences
4 (2018 11) 561-569.
Libakova N. M., Petrova K. I. The Children’s Literature of Indigenous Small-Numbered Peoples of the
Krasnoyarsk Krai // Journal of Siberian Federal University. Humanities & Social Sciences 9 (2016 9)
1977-1993.
Libakova N. M., Sertakova E. A. Russian and International Projects in the Field of the Indigenous Peoples’
Decorative and Applied Art Development // Journal of Siberian Federal University. Humanities
& Social Sciences 10 (2017 10) 1525-1541.
Libakova N. M., Sertakova E. A. Ekspediciya v poselok Surinda Evenkijskogo municipal'nogo rajona.
Dnevnik polevogo issledovaniya [Expedition to the settlement of Surinda of the Evenki Municipal
District. Field study diary] // Severnye Arhivy i Ekspedicii [Northern Archives and Expeditions]. –
2018. – T. 2. – № 2. – S. 6-29
McBride, J. T. (2009) Orthography and Ideology: Examining the Development of Kaw Writing. In D.
Rosenblum & C. Meeker (Eds.), Santa Barbara papers in linguistics, Vol. 20, Proceedings from the
twelfth Workshop on American Indigenous Languages, 30-45, – Available at: http://www.linguistics.
ucsb.edu/sites/secure.lsit.ucsb.edu.ling.d7/files/sitefiles/research/papers/20/SBPL20_Mc-
Bride.pdf
Mizhit L. S. The Development of Tuvan Literature During the Soviet Period (1960-80-s) // Journal of
Siberian Federal University. Humanities & Social Sciences 4 (2018 11) 570-578.
Nakhodkona A. A. The Image of the North in the Yakut Heroic Epic Olonkho // Journal of Siberian Federal
University. Humanities & Social Sciences 4 (2018 11) 579-589.
Official web-site of MIROMAA. Aboriginal language and technology centre. – http://www.miromaa.org.au/
Official web-site of SIL international – www.sil.org
Oko, Ch. M. W. (2018) Orthography development for Darma (The case that wasn’t), In Language documentation
and conservation, Vol. 12, 15-46, – Available at: https://scholarspace.manoa.hawaii.edu/
bitstream/10125/24761/1/oko.pdf
Okorokova, V. B., Vinokurova, A. A. Peculiarities of the Genre of Poem in the Literature of the Peoples
of the North // Journal of Siberian Federal University. Humanities & Social Sciences 4 (2018 11)
590-595.
Oshchepkova, A. I., Vinokurova, A. A. The Problem of Folklorism in Russian and National Literatures
of the Early 20th Century // Journal of Siberian Federal University. Humanities & Social Sciences
4 (2018 11) 596-601.
Pike, K. L. (1947) Phonemics: A Technique for Reducing Languages to Writing, University of Michigan
Press, 254 p.
Reznikova K. V., Zamaraeva, Y. S., Sergeeva, N. A. (2018) The Sociocultural Problems of Teaching the
Entsy Language. In Journal of Siberian Federal University. Humanities & Social Sciences 7, 11,

1137-1150, –Available at: http://elib.sfu-kras.ru/bitstream/handle/2311/71765/Reznikova.pdf;jsessionid=
42E3486035EBD96346C685E696957DB0?sequence=1
Robinson, C., Gadelii, C. (2003) Writing unwritten languages – a guide to the process: working paper,
In United Nations Educational, scientific and cultural organizations, – Available at: http://unesdoc.
unesco.org/images/0022/002264/226475e.pdf
Seredkina N. N. Evenk Children’s Literature: History and Specific Features // Journal of Siberian Federal
University. Humanities & Social Sciences 9 (2016 9) 1994-2004.
Seredkina, N. N., Strucheva, Ye. S. Revival of the Evenki Language: Traditional and Modern Formats //
Journal of Siberian Federal University. Humanities & Social Sciences 4 (2018 11) 615-628.
Sertakova E. A. Nenets Children’s Literature: the History and Specificity // Journal of Siberian Federal
University. Humanities & Social Sciences 9 (2016 9) 2013-2021.
Sharina, S. I. Verbal Word-Formation in the Lower Kolyma Subdialect of the Even Language // Journal
of Siberian Federal University. Humanities & Social Sciences 4 (2018 11) 629-640.
Shimanskaya, K. I.; Koptseva, N. P. Historiographic Review of Indigenous Peoples Research for the
Years 2014-2018 // Journal of Siberian Federal University. Humanities & Social Sciences 4 (2018
11) 641-653.
Simons, G. F., Fennig, C. D. (eds.) (2018) Ethnologue: Languages of the World, Twenty-first edition. Dallas,
Texas: SIL International. – Online version: http://www.ethnologue.com.
Smalley, W. (1964) How Shall I Write This Language? Orthography Studies: Articles on New Writing
Systems. In Helps for Translators 6. London: United Bible Societies, 31-52.
Smolina M. G. Peculiarities of Indigenous Children’s Literature // Journal of Siberian Federal University.
Humanities & Social Sciences 9 (2016 9) 1945-1976.
Snider, K. (2014) On Establishing Underlying Tonal Contrast. In Language Documentation & Conservation
8: 707-737.
Townsend, W. C. (1961) Cakchiquel grammar. In Summer Institute of Linguistics of the University of
Oklahoma. Linguistic series 5, 1-79.
Varavina, G. N. The Image of Geolandscape Representations in the Ornamental Culture of the Evens
and the Evenks of Yakutia // Journal of Siberian Federal University. Humanities & Social Sciences
4 (2018 11) 663-669.
Vinokurova, D. M., Vinokurova, A. A., Borisova, I. Z. Transformation of the Traditional Food Culture of
Rural Residents in Yakutia: Reduction in Natural Food Consumption // Journal of Siberian Federal
University. Humanities & Social Sciences 4 (2018 11) 670-678.
Weth, C., Juffermans, K. (eds.) (2018) The Tyranny of writing. Ideologies of written world, In Bloomsbury
Academic. Series Advances in Sociolinguistics, 240.
Zamaraeva Y. S. Experience in the Preservation and Development of the Evenki Language in the Evenki
Municipal District of the Krasnoyarsk Krai on the Basis of the Analysis of Evenki Archival Documents
// Journal of Siberian Federal University. Humanities & Social Sciences 8 (2018 11) 1327-
1369.
Zamaraeva, Julia S., Sergeeva, Natalia A., Fil’ko, Antonina I. Measures on the Preservation of the
Language of the Small-numbered Indigenous Peoples Based on the Results of Field Studies and
Scientific Research in the Evenk Municipal District of the Krasnoyarsk Krai // Journal of Siberian
Federal University. Humanities & Social Sciences 4 (2018 11) 679-694.